Weight loss surgery should only be used as a last resort and patients must fulfill specific medical requirements. According to the Cleveland Clinic, you must be clinically obese and weigh at least 100 pounds over your ideal body weight to qualify for invasive gastrointestinal surgery. You must have a history of trying (and failing) to lose weight through diet and exercise. You are also required to undergo thorough physical and psychological evaluations and nutritional counselling.
Most procedures cost in excess of £15,000 and require at least a three to four day hospital stay. Risks and complications include bleeding, post-operative infection, respiratory problems and in rare cases, fatality.
On the other hand, the benefits of weight loss surgery can be innumerable. Not only does it lower your risk of contracting over 30 serious medical conditions including heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer, but extreme weight loss can give new life to people who were previously locked into bodies weighted down by obesity. In this case, personal esteem and self-image can be priceless.
Stomach balloon surgery places an inflated silicone balloon in the stomach to reduce the amount it can hold, making the patient feel fuller faster.
Stomach stapling is a permanent procedure where a portion of the stomach is stapled to create a new, smaller stomach. The new stomach will only hold two tablespoons of food (a normal stomach holds a quart) requiring a lifetime commitment to balanced eating and exercise.
Stomach bypass surgery (gastric bypass surgery, roux-en-y gastric bypass, biliopancreatic diversion, duodenal switch) is a procedure where the stomach is stapled and then rerouted around five feet of small intestine to prevent caloric absorption in the intestinal tract.
Adjustable gastric banding (lap band, vertical banded gastroplasty) is a reversible procedure placing a silicone band around the stomach to divide it into two sections; food slowly passes through the smaller top pouch into the rest of the stomach, making the participant feel fuller longer.
Liposuction (lipoplasty, suction lipectomy) removes fat deposits (in increments of 10 pounds per surgery) from the body. Popular areas include the torso, thighs and buttocks. Liposuction doesn't affect eating habits, so patients must pursue diet and exercise; unfortunately, 43 percent of participants gain back the fat they loss.
Jaw wiring is a reversible procedure that wires the jaw closed to prevent the consumption of solid food. After losing weight the wires are removed; however, participants must pursue regular diet and exercise and the majority gain back the weight.